Isolation of cannabidiol
US 2304669 A
DESCRIPTION (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Dec. 8, 1942 ISOLATION OF OANNABIDIOL Roger Adams, Urbana, Ill.
No Drawing. Application August 16, 1940, Serial No. 352,931
(Formula I) CHa With the exception of the position of the double bond in the left hand cycle in the above formula the structure of cannabidiol is well established. Investigations show this left hand cycle to be a tetrahydro benzene ring.
Cannabidiol is a crystalline compound, M. P. 66-67 (con), and forms long white rods when crystallized from petroleum ether (B. P. 30-60). It has an [a] D-125, and. is physiologically inactive so far as marihuana activity is concerned.
It has now been found that cannabidiol isomerizes upon treatment, for example, with a variety of reagents such as hydrochloric acid and ethanol, hydrogen chloride in ether, pyridine hydrochloride, sulfamic acid, zinc chloride, ethanolic phosphoric acid, etc. and is converted to tetrahydro cannabinol which has marihuana activity. The isomerizing processes and resulting physiologically active tetrahydro cannabinols form the subject matter of my co-pending application Serial No. 440,971.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide an improved process for isolating cannabidiol from red oil obtained from hemp.
Other objects of the present invention will be apparent as the description proceeds.
The isolation of cannabidiol from red oil obtained from hemp is described in detail in J. A. C. S. 62, 196 (1940). This process which includes the treatment of purified red oil with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and the formation of cannabidiol bis-3,5-dinitrobenzoate has been found of particular value for the isolation of the desired product. Ammonolysis of the benzoate, i. e. diester, yields cannabidiol in pure form.
The process as set forth in the J. A. C. S. 62,
, two cc. portions of petroleum ether.
196, 198, 199 (1940) serves to illustrate the present invention.
cannabidiol bis-3,5-dinitrobenzoate.-A solution of about 50 grams of purified red oil, B. P. 175-195 C. (2 mm.), in 200 cc. of dry pyridine was poured rapidly with shaking and cooling on grams of 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride. The mixture was heated on a steam cone for two hours with occasional shaking and was then poured into ice and hydrochloric acid (200 cc. of concentrated hydrchloric acid, 500 cc. of ice). It was filtered or decanted and the insoluble material was washed several times with dilute hydrochloric acid. The residue was dissolved in 600 cc. of benzene and filtered. The insoluble material consisted mainly of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid.
The benzene solution was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid, then with aqueous sodium bicarbonate and finally with water. The benzene was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in 500 cc. of dry ether. This solution was treated with norit (20 grams), filtered, and then concentrated to 300 cc. On cooling in an ice-salt mixture with constant stirring, crystallization set in. After one hour, the product was filtered and washed with cold dry ether. Upon purification of the desired product by recrystallization from 800 cc. of a mixture of methanol and methyl acetate (2:1), it was obtained as white rods M. P. l06-l07 C. (corr.)
Cannabidiol.A solution of 50 grams of cannabidiol bis-3,5-dinitrobenzoate in cc. of toluene was placed in the glass liner of a high pressure bomb. The mixture was cooled by dryice and about 100 cc. of liquid ammonia passed into it. The liner was then placed in the bomb and the cover quickly fastened. The bomb was allowed to stand for five hours at room temperature. At the end of that time the excess ammonia was allowed to escape and the product, which had set to a solid mass, was digested with 400 cc, of petroleum ether (B. P. 60-110 C.) The solid 3,5- dinitrobenzamide was filtered and washed with Filtrate and washings were combined and extracted six times with cc. portions of boiling water to remove the last traces of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide. The petroleum ether was then evaporated and the residue distilled, B. P. 187-190 C. (2 mm.) (bath temperature 220 C.). The resulting product, i. e. cannabidiol, was obtained as a pale yellow resin.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the details of the process outlined above. The scope of the 3. A process for isolating substantially pure cannabidiol from red oil obtained from hemp which comprises (a) treating hemp red oil with 3,5-dinitrobenzoy1 chloride, (12) separating the cannabidiol bis-3,5-dinitr0benzoate formed in (a) from the red oil mixture, and (c) subjecting the benzoate ester of (b) to ammonolysis.
4. The product cannabidiol bis-3,5-dinitrobenzoate.
REFERENCED BYCiting PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitleUS4092344 *Jan 24, 1977May 30, 1978Eli Lilly And CompanyCyclohexenyl resorcinol derivativesUS5626507 *Oct 27, 1995May 6, 1997Gillen; Frederick H.Pad for shoulder strapsUS6274635Mar 22, 2000Aug 14, 2001Immugen Pharmaceuticals Inc.Alkylated resorcinol derivatives for the treatment of immune diseasesUS6566560Aug 13, 2001May 20, 2003Immugen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Resorcinolic compoundsUS6630507Apr 21, 1999Oct 7, 2003The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human ServicesCannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectantsUS7105685Dec 22, 2002Sep 12, 2006Travis Craig RCannabinol derivativesUS7109245 *Aug 14, 2002Sep 19, 2006The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human ServicesVasoconstrictor cannabinoid analogsUS7674922Sep 28, 2006Mar 9, 2010Albany Molecular Research, Inc.Process for production of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolUS8106244May 16, 2011Jan 31, 2012Albany Molecular Research, Inc.Process for production of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
CLASSIFICATIONSU.S. Classification568/743International ClassificationC07C37/00Cooperative ClassificationC07C37/0555, C07C2101/16, C07C37/004European ClassificationC07C37/055A, C07C37/00N